The execution of tasks, while essential for the design and implementation of task-based language teaching, are underemphasized in the literature. This book describes task-based language learning and teaching through examples of group work, particularly in the assessment of student learning in the classroom. The book examines the effectiveness (in terms of learning) of tasks in the four stages of language learning: (i) Pre-task, (ii) Task, (iii) Post-task, and (iv) Post-exercise review. It is written to bridge the gap between research into the effectiveness of task-based language teaching and teaching practice. It will also be of interest to students and researchers working in the areas of applied linguistics, TESOL and second language acquisition.
In all kinds of learning, it is the task or role that determines the facts of the matter. A task is a set of appropriate behaviors that indicate, by the way that they are performed, that you do know what you are supposed to be doing.
In second language learning, task performance can be a vital indicator of second language ability. Tasks, in this respect, become language'report cards' for the learner. Usually, however, tasks are not the only indicators of the learner's language proficiency; mastery can also be certified by the learner's responses to more 'naturalistic' stimuli.
In language teaching, particularly in school settings, tasks are usually instructional vehicles which may be embedded in a lesson plan; frequently, however, they are classroom activities which describe the tasks that students need to undertake. Frequently, the task is to perform sentences that have been presented 'front-to-back' (Sankoff & Sarantakis, 1989), or to perform well-formed utterances, with minimal input (Meyer et al., 1994). In this respect, tasks are highly functional, as in some TBLT approaches (Sampaio et al., 1996) or in some that are more pragmatically-oriented (Reynolds, 1984). A task is something the learner is actually required to do. It may be just a sentence to be produced, or it may be a performance task. But a task is not about the practitioner, it is about the student. d2c66b5586